5th Great Awakening 1880

5th Great Awakening Timeline

5th Great Awakening Timeline

This period is what J. Edwin Orr named a ‘resurgence,’ because it was clearly an extension of the 1859 Revival. Though not a revival in the classical sense of the word, the missionary and evangelistic ministries that were released in the wake of the 59 revival were phenomenal. For evidence of this, read on.

It would be very easy to review this period, 1880 to 1903, as a period of unusual evangelistic effort and success, as most its documentation surrounds the ministry of Dwight L. Moody, supported by a host of other ministries that were also born out of the 1857 revival. Certainly, the fourth great awakening had produced some highly motivated and anointed ministries like Sam Jones, J. Wilber Chapman and Billy Sunday who had extraordinary success in North America; Andrew Murray exercised a powerful ministry in South Africa, as did John McNeil in Australia.

But looking at the wider world situation, something more than evangelistic success was afoot. It was quite distinct in its character and effects. D. L. Moody’s ministry may be described as ‘highly successful crusade evangelism interspersed with periodic revivalism’. But this was reproduced around the world at an astonishing rate and with outstanding results.

We may well describe this resurgence ‘a missionary revival’ which took the flame of the 1859 revival even further around the world, ensuring a strong church base in all nations – just in time for the great 20th Century awakening.

Entries from ‘Re-study of Revival and Revivalism,’ chapter 5, J. Edwin Orr are marked (RRR)

Dwight Lyman Moody

1858 Dwight L. Moody started a Sunday School of his own in a vacant saloon which soon became the largest Sunday School in Chicago. All the while, he continued active in his business as a salesman.

1860 Moody began his ministry in Chicago, deciding to give up his business income and “live by faith”. He concentrated on his Sunday school and YMCA work.

1864 Moody’s new church acquired and occupied its own building on Illinois Street, Chicago

1867 Moody’s first trip to Britain, meeting with C. H. Spurgeon, George Muller, George Williams, Lord Shaftesbury, R. C. Morgan, Henry Varley, Harry Moorhouse, and those who seemed to Moody to have something to share with him in the work of the Lord.

Moody teamed up with Ira D. Sankey, who became his soloist in his world ministry.

1871 While visiting New York, Moody experienced a mighty enduement of the Holy Spirit.

1872 Moody’s second visit to Britain. After a night of prayer in Dublin, Henry Varley said to him: ‘Moody, the world has yet to see what God will do with a man fully consecrated to Him.’

1872 Moody’s visit brought a local awakening in a North London church and a number of invitations to return to Britain for a wider ministry followed.

1873 June, the Moody and Sankey families arrived in UK and commenced meetings in York then Sunderland and Newcastle-on-Tyne.

1873 Moody’s ministry blossomed in his Edinburgh campaign. He introduced the noonday prayer meeting of the American 1858 Revival. His evening meetings were crowded, filling the largest places. Spurgeon spoke of the visit of 1873-1875 as ‘a gracious visitation’ and a ‘very notable ingathering of converts’, especially at Newcastle and Edinburgh. Andrew Bonar refers in his diary to ‘the tide of real revival in Edinburgh’ comparing it with his own experience of revival 35 years earlier.

1873 Moody began a work Dundee, then Glasgow, where thousands were converted.

1873 The Church of Scotland missioner, D. P. Thomson, both scholar and evangelist, pointed out that at the time of D. L. Moody’s first campaigns in Scotland, there was a spirit of revival everywhere.

1874 Moody held successful campaigns in Belfast and Dublin, where several thousand professed conversion.

1874 The Manchester, Sheffield, Birmingham and Liverpool Missions followed, each with amazing success.

1874 Twenty thousand people nightly heard Moody in the Agricultural Hall in Islington. The London meetings lasted nearly twenty weeks, and an aggregate of two and a half million people attended them.

1875 August, Moody returned to the United States in and commenced a campaign in Brooklyn in October, followed by a greater one in Philadelphia in late November. Vast crowds attended, for news of success in Britain had filled the American church people with enthusiasm and expectation.

1876 February, Moody held a campaign in New York, where the New Yorkers attended in tens of thousands, many responding.

1876 Moody returned to Chicago to campaign.

1877 Moody commenced ministry in Boston

1878 Moody campaigned successfully in New England.

1878 Revival at Yale under Moody’s preaching.

1879 Moody founded a school for girls at his home in Northfield, Massachusetts

1880 Moody began his summer Bible conferences at Northfield where Christian leaders from all parts of the English–speaking world assembled to learn particularly about evangelism and the necessity of Spirit–filled lives of holiness.

1880-81 Moody and Sankey ministered in cities across the country as far as the Pacific Coast.

1881 Moody founded the Mount Hermon School for boys.

1881 October, Moody’s second British campaign commenced in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, then Edinburgh for six weeks, then Glasgow, in which neighbourhood he preached for five months.

1882 Moody’s mission in Cambridge marked the beginning of a worldwide interdenominational student missionary movement. The ‘Cambridge Seven’, including C. T. Studd, were products of this visit and they went to on evangelise China in 1885.

1882 Moody conducted short series of meetings in the Welsh cities and towns and in the provincial cities of England.

1883 Moody conducted an eight-months mission in London. Two large temporary structures were built, one in North London and the other in South London.

1883 Moody founded the Moody Bible Institute with an emphasis on missions.

1884 onwards, Moody conducted his evangelistic campaigns in smaller American cities.

1886 Moody adopted Emma Dryer’s recently founded Bible training school, the Chicago Bible Institute (later Moody Bible Institute) to quickly train laymen to become effective Christian workers.

1886 The outstanding outgrowth of the Northfield conferences led to the formation of the immensely influential Student Volunteer Movement in. This movement inspired the missionary efforts of thousands of young people during the succeeding decades, carrying with them the motto of the Student Volunteers, ‘the evangelization of the world in this generation.’

1889 D. L. Moody invited Reuben Torrey, at the age of 33, to became the first Superintendent of the Chicago Evangelization Society (later Moody Bible Institute), guiding it from its inception September 26, 1889, until 1908. He was the chief executive officer and the success of the Institute can probably be attributed to Torrey’s contribution more than any other individual. He laid the groundwork for the curriculum and the practical Christian work program. Torrey’s leadership at the school, plus his part in the 1893 World’s Fair evangelism outreach, brought him to the attention of the Christian world. Torrey was automatically considered the ‘Elisha’ to carry on Moody’s work upon his death in 1899. When Moody collapsed in Kansas City in November, 1899, just prior to his death, it was Torrey who carried on the crusade.

1893 Moody conducted a great campaign at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Approximately two million visitors attended this evangelistic series at the World’s Fair. To reach those speaking French, German, Polish and other languages of Europe, Moody invited Monod of Paris, Stoecker of Berlin, Pinder of Poland, and other European notables to conduct special meetings and he also shared ministry with Thomas Spurgeon of New Zealand, Henry Varley of Australia, John McNeill of Scotland, famous English speaking evangelists.

1895 Moody designated J. Wilbur Chapman as “the greatest evangelist in the country.”

1899 November, Moody’s last campaign held in Kansas City, Missouri.

1899 22nd December, Moody passed into glory

Samuel Porter Jones

1872 Samuel Porter Jones of Alabama was converted.

1872 March, Sam Jones, “The Moody of the South,” admitted to the North Carolina (Methodist) Conference as an itinerant preacher on the poorest Van Wert circuit in. In three years, giving increased 1200 percent and membership increased at a rate of two hundred a year.

1876 Sam Jones was ordained and elected as an elder in. During the next five years two thousand members were added on other circuits. He became the South’s most famous evangelist and preacher in the late nineteenth century.

1884 Sam Jones first attempted evangelism on a city-wide scale. Campaigns in Memphis and Nashville launching him to fame. His preaching was blunt to a point of coarseness and vulgarity, but his evangelism was much in demand in the Southern cities with occasional expeditions to other parts.

1884-1895 Jones held large urban meetings. Most of these were in the South, but he was also involved in large meetings in the West and Midwest.

1884 Memphis, Sam Jones first union meeting, where there were one thousand decisions for Christ.

1885 March, Tulip Street Methodist Church, Nashville, 150 made decisions for Christ in a month.

1885 May, Jones moved to a tent seating three thousand, a practice which he kept up until 1892, and soon ten thousand were added to the churches in Nashville.

1888 fall, After meetings in Chicago (three thousand decisions), Boston, and other cities, he returned to Nashville.

1889-1892 Building of the permanent tabernacle called the Union Gospel Tabernacle. The brainchild of Thomas G. Ryman, a local businessman, who was converted in one of the meetings and developed the idea of a a more permanent building. Eighteen series of meetings were held in it. It is still known as the Ryman Auditorium.

1876-1906 He is reputed to have had five hundred thousand converts out of a total of 25 million people in his meetings, most of which were in Nashville, during his ministry.

J. Wilbur Chapman

1881 J. Wilbur Chapman was ordained and served a two-point pastorate in Ohio and Indiana with much success.

1883-1885 J. Wilbur Chapman became pastor of a Dutch Reformed church in Schuylerville, New York, from 1883 to 1885. When he went to First Dutch Reformed Church in Albany, he made use of gospel songs and an inquiry room in that staid church.

1886 Chapman experienced a definite filling with the Holy Spirit through the counsel of F. B. Meyer and Moody, when he visited Northfield.

1890-1892 Chapman called to Wanamaker’ Bethany Church in Philadelphia and was pastor there from 1890 to 1892 and from 1896 to 1899. In a month-long meeting there, 440 were added to the church, and the people in the prayer meeting numbered 4,000.

1892-1895 He served as a fulltime evangelist.

1901 fall, Chapman supervised more than fifty evangelists when he was appointed corresponding secretary of the General Assembly Committee on Evangelism of the Presbyterian Church.

1908-1918 Charles M. Alexander helped Chapman as a song leader in major urban meetings.

1908 March-April, Simultaneous Campaign in Philadelphia brought 8,000 converts into the churches. His most successful meetings of this type were in Boston in January and February of

1909. There were 7,000 decisions with 720,000 attending the meetings with 30 speakers and 1,000 personal workers.

1909 Thousands were converted in Chapman’ tour of the Far East and Australia.

1911 Two thousand made decisions in Swansea, Wales.

1912-13 2,000 were saved in Auckland, New Zealand, in a second tour to Australia.

Billy Sunday

1886 Billy Sunday converted.

1893 Billy Sunday becomes full time assistant to J. Wilbur Chapman, the well-known evangelist.

1896 Sunday embarked on his own ministerial career.

1896-1935 Billy Sunday preaches an estimated 20,000 sermons to audiences at revival meetings held throughout the US.

1898 Sunday was licensed to preach

1903 Sunday ordained by the Chicago Presbytery.

1910-1920 The peak of his career came between as he staged massive rallies in cities across the nation to spread the gospel message.

1916 Boston, Mass., 55,000 people heard Billy Sunday preach. An overflow crowd of 15,000 had to be turned away from the temporary tabernacle that had been erected on Huntington Avenue. During the next ten weeks, the baseball star-turned evangelist drew an estimated 1,500,000 to his Boston meetings. Almost 65,000 came to Christ.

1935 Nov. 6, Winona Lake, Ind. Sunday died of a heart attack. He had stirred the religious enthusiasm of thousands of Americans and had buttressed the conservative religious and social attitudes of many fundamentalists.

Other revivals in US

1880-1881 winter, revival in Williston Congregational Church, Portland, Maine under its pastor, Francis E. Clark. The Christian Endeavour Movement was born out of this revival.

Revivals in Europe

1860 Among the humble peasants of the Ukraine, a revival began.

1874 1877-8 Lord Radstock, a product of the 1859 Revival in Britain, who had served against the Russians in the Crimean War, returned to Russia to witness to the upper classes in St. Petersburg with outstanding success.

1880 revival began in Norway under ?(no details)

1875-1877 Revival in North Wales under ministry of Richard Owen, John Richard Hughes and Hugh Hughes. (J Vyrnwy Morgan, ‘The Welsh Religious Revival 1904-05’).

1876-77 another revival of evangelical Christianity occurred in Sweden under August Skogsbergh, who was called “the Swedish Moody.”

1881 Frederick Franson, converted in Nebraska and in 1875 came to Chicago to study the methods of D. L. Moody, returned to Sweden, where he began to exercise a powerful ministry in the chapels of the evangelistic sections of the Church.

1880-1910 The Thirty Years’ Revival in Germany saw several hundred thousand people converted.

1882-1884 Revival in North Wales under ministry of Richard Owen (See here)

Revivals outside of US, UK and Europe

1870’s late, a great revival began in Sweden through August Skogsbergh (known as the Swedish Moody). (RRR)

1880’s Forward movements were reported throughout India, revivals in Kerala and Tamilnad. (RRR)

1880’s Norway saw a great revival started in the town of Skien, effective in the southern and western parts the country. It became a powerful help in foreign missions. (RRR)

1880’s Revival hit Japan early this year, increasing the adult membership from 4,000 to 30,000 in five years.

1880’s The China Inland Mission experienced a large influx of new missionaries. New missions were planted in many unevangelised fields and revivals were reported in India, Africa, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia, Central and South America. (RRR)

1880 A “thirty years revival’ started in the German lands, prompted by Prof. Theodor Christlieb whose life was changed through Moody’s ministry in London during 1859-1865. (RRR)

1880-81 winter, there was a time of revival in Williston Congregational Church, in Portland, Maine. Its pastor, Francis E. Clark. (RRR)

1881 An extraordinary revival began upon the Mosquito Coast of Nicaragua, among the Moravian mission stations. Church membership trebled within ten years. (RRR)

1881 A friend of Moody, Fredrik Franson, came to his native Sweden and began to minister within the prayer halls of the voluntary mission groups. He extended his work to Norway also, and had striking opportunities in Denmark. (RRR)

1882 Andrew Murray the Dutch Reformed evangelist and pastor experienced a deeper work of grace at Keswick, and returned with Spencer Walton, a younger Englishman, who then campaigned throughout South Africa to such effect that awakenings occurred in many places. He and Murray started the South Africa General Mission. (RRR)

1883 It was reported that “a spirit of religious revival bringing times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord is spreading in Japan.” (RRR)

1893 Uganda saw a revival and awakening through the missionary, Pilkington, who sought a new experience of the Spirit. In fifteen years lay teachers increased from 75 to 2032, communicants from 230 to 18,041, the baptized Christians from 1140 to 62,716, and catechumens from 230 to 2563 (RRR)

1884 Greytown in Natal saw a significant revival and awakening not long after the battle of Majuba. (RRR)

1884-1989 Henry Richards of the British Livingstone Inland Mission after six years of difficulty saw a remarkable movement of the Spirit in the Congo, by 1887 more than a thousand converts being added to his church, in 1889 no less than 950 being baptized, two thousand in all in this “Pentecost on the Congo,” at Banza Manteke, with similar awakenings in other stations. The work was soon transferred to American Baptists, the revival increasing, a foretaste of awakenings yet to come. (RRR)

1884 Chile, a localized revival (no details) described by a Presbyterian investigating committee “an outpouring of the Spirit.’ (RRR)

1884-1989 Henry Richards of the British Livingstone Inland Mission, saw a remarkable movement of the Spirit in the Congo. By 1887 more than a thousand converts being added to his church, in 1889 no less than 950 being baptized, two thousand in all in this “Pentecost on the Congo,” at Banza Manteke, with similar awakenings in other stations. The work was soon transferred to American Baptists, the revival increasing, a foretaste of awakenings yet to come. (RRR)

1887-1889 Canada. Crossley and Hunter followed the Moody pattern of evangelism Canadian cities. A series in Ottawa was reported as “the most extraordinary revival” ever known in Canada.

1890’s Australia, there were awakenings among the aborigines. (RRR)

1890’s Madagascar, an indigenous revival began, under leadership of a converted soldier, Rainisoalambo. The movement was designated the Disciples of the Lord, the first of many indigenous revival movements. (RRR)

1889 Armenia. An evangelical revival through a leading evangelist Haroutune Jenanian of Tarsus. Thousands attended the meetings in Aintab in Asia Minor. (RRR)

International revivals

1883 It was reported that “a spirit of religious revival bringing times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord is spreading in Japan.”

1884 The January Week of Prayer at Doshisha University could not be stopped, but ran on till March, 200 students being baptized. Historians of Christianity in Japan note that time as “Rapid Growth 1883- 1888,” for adult membership increased from four to thirty thousand, in three hundred churches, evangelists quadrupling to four hundred.

1880’s Missionaries entered Korea.

1880’s denominational societies as well as the China Inland Mission advanced; so great were opportunities in China that Hudson Taylor prayed for a hundred new recruits for the China Inland Mission. Where did he find his men? As in the Cambridge Seven, he reached for the best and often found them in the universities.

1882 Before the 1858-59 Awakening, there were only seven medical evangelists in all of India, but their numbers had quadrupled by 1882, and increased twenty-fold by 1895, with 168 Indian doctors assisting them. Christian missions had a near-monopoly on medical services in India for half a century.

1880’s Forward movements were reported throughout India, revivals in Kerala and Tamilnad.

1880’s Africa, the missionary societies made great advances in many sectors.

1886 Southern Africa, Spencer Walton, protege of Andrew Murray, switched from European missions to evangelizing Bantu-speaking Africans. All the while, Charles Pamla, who had been interpreter for William Taylor, preached with such power that people said that Taylor’ mantle had fallen on the Xhosa chief.

1870’s Lord Radstock, who was converted in the 1859 Revival, returned to witness to the Russian aristocracy. He was followed by Dr. F. W. Baedeker, who encouraged the converts in the nobility and in the general population.

1886 Russia. Ivan S. Prokhanov was converted, and soon became a force in Russian evangelicalism, which flourished in spite of a twenty-years’ persecution begun in 1884.

Andrew Murray in South Africa

We include a timeline of Andrew Murray of South Africa to illustrate how the Awakening of 1858-60 had a lasting effect on missions over the next four decades.

1840 Revivalist William C. Burns spoke in Aberdeen, Scotland and made a deep impression on Andrew Murray. Burns had been instrumental in the Kilsyth Revival of 1839.

1843 Andrew Murray and his brother John went to Pastor Johann Blumhardt in Germany and “saw first-hand the work of God’ power.” Blumhardt had ministered to a women and hervsister who experienced powerful deliverance, which triggered an outbreak of divine power that transformed the entire village of Möttlingen and attracted people from miles around.’ This spontaneous revival led to revival, healing and miracles for a few years.

1848 Andrew and John Murray were ordained at the Hague and returned to South Africa. Andrew had a traveling ministry, holding meetings for the Dutch-speaking South African farmers.

1848 Andrew was appointed to the Dutch Reformed congregation in Bloemfontein. At the age of twenty-one he found himself responsible for a parish covering an area of 80,500 square miles.

1860 Andrew accepted a pastorate in Worcester where he served for four years.. He came, to the church, at the same time as a scheduled conference on revival and missions, where the revivals in North America and Europe were described. While Murray was there, a number of congregations in the Cape, chiefly Dutch Reformed and Methodist, experienced a remarkable religious revival. A generation before, Murray’ father had been a minister in Graaff-Reinet and had prayed for many years for an outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon the churches of this nation country. Hundreds were received into membership of the church and about fifty men felt a call to fulltime Christian ministry. Murray wrote his most famous book, Abide in Christ, to help and guide those converted in the revival.

1871 Murray was called to the congregation at Wellington where he served for the next thirty-four years. His passion for education and missions led to him to the founding of the Huguenot Seminary (1874) and the Wellington Missionary Training Institute (1877). He had previously been involved in founding Grey College in Bloemfontein (later the University of the Orange Free State) and the Normal College in Cape Town.

1871 From Wellington, Murray embarked on a number of evangelistic tours around the country. So successful were these that he was also invited to preach at Northfield in the USA and at Keswick in England. While remaining firmly grounded in his inherited Reformed theology Murray was deeply influenced by the holiness, revivalist and missionary movements of his time.

1877 Andrew travelled to the United States, speaking at holiness conventions across the nation.

1879 Murray became ill and lost his voice for two years! He met with Otto Stockmayer to get a deeper understanding of the theology of healing.

1881 Andrew went to London to Bethshan, a faith cure home started by W. E. Boardman and was completely healed of his throat problem.

1900 Murry wrote a book about Divine Healing (1900) that paved the way for the Pentecostal movement in South Africa.

Librarian’s note

We have included the following list revealing amazing evangelistic growth occurring from the 1880’s to the turn of the century. It demonstrates how the 1858-1860 Awakening was followed by an expansion of churches worldwide, unparalleled in history. They are mainly, but not exclusively, drawn from Edwin Orr’s Re-study of Revival and Revivalism, chapter 5.

1880’s Elijah Schrenk, who served in missionary work in Africa, decided after hearing Moody that he wanted to become a similar evangelist and commenced his city-wide campaigns which he sustained for twenty-seven years in church evangelism.

1882 Friedrich von Schlumbach (an officer who served in Lincoln’ Army, converted in the United States) commenced his nation-wide campaigns founded the first Y.M.C.A. there.

All following ‘Re-study of Revival and Revivalism,’ chapter 5 J. Edwin Orr (RRR). These are not ‘revival’ but a list of amazing evangelical advances which, cumulatively, have no parallel in church history.

1882 South Africa. Andrew Murray exercised a powerful influence in country-wide evangelism.

1880’s John MacNeil rose to prominence as an Australian Presbyterian evangelist who promoted interdenominational prayer for spiritual awakening. Among others who helped to answer prayer was an Anglican, George Grubb, who held campaigns throughout Australia and New Zealand which had all the marks of a revival. The 1880s and 1890s witnessed much activity in Australia and New Zealand, culminating in a great awakening in the early twentieth century.

1884 Canada, following Moody’ 1884 campaign in Toronto, a truly Canadian evangelistic team arose, Crossley and Hunter, who harvested the renewed awakening interest in Canadian cities.

1880’s In the Southern States, “the Moody of the South,” Sam Jones, began his city-wide evangelistic series in Memphis and Nashville.

1890’s Dr. Wilbur Chapman, a Presbyterian, rose to fame about this time, Moody considering him the greatest evangelist of the1890s.

 

1893 Moody continued to campaign, his greatest effort being the great Chicago series this year.

1880-81 winter, there was a time of revival in Williston Congregational Church, in Portland, Maine. Its pastor, Francis E. Clark, wishing to conserve the benefits, organized the converts into a Young People’ Society of Christian Endeavor, to call youth to greater dedication and service. The idea caught on, becoming an organization for encouraging young folk to participate in church activities.

1886 A thousand delegates attended the first C. E. Convention, two thousand the second, held at Saratoga Springs. In 1888, five thousand attended the convention in Chicago, and next year sixty-five hundred in Philadelphia, including overseas delegates. In 1890, eight thousand attended the St. Louis convention, and fourteen thousand next in Minneapolis. In 1892, ten years after the foundation of the first society, thirty- five thousand met in New York City.

1888 Francis Clark visited the British Isles, and three years later there were a hundred societies there, in six years a thousand. By 1895, there were 38,000 local societies in the world, with 2,225,000 members. The work was evangelical, evangelistic and church-related, suited to the climate of the day, which was evangelical-ecumenical. The movement was transplanted easily to far off fields, even to Madagascar, where it was known as Fikambunan ny Kristiana Tanora. The movement was effective for more than a generation.

1880’s & 90’s. The Y.M.C.A. took root in India and China and elsewhere; the Salvation Army became a worldwide service organization; the Bible Societies made themselves the handmaidens of all denominations and societies.

1882 Cambridge students invited Moody to campaign. Gerald Lander, was first to make profession of a new- found faith in Christ, later becoming Bishop of Hong Kong; fifty men sought counsel Wednesday night and a hundred on Thursday, intellectuals and athletes making public profession. This mission was the beginning of a worldwide interdenominational student movement. Moody repeated his success in Oxford. Out of the Cambridge work came a group of seven, including C. T. Studd, the cricketer, who formed the “Cambridge Seven,” evangelized with Moody and went out to China as C.I.M. missionaries, one (C. T. Studd) later founding a worldwide evangelistic work.

When the Cambridge student leader, Kynaston Studd, paid a visit to Cornell University, a law student named John R. Mott made a full commitment of his life, and soon became the best-known student leader in the world for half a century.

1985 Student leaders in America persuaded Moody to minister in American colleges.

1886 A student conference was held at Mount Hermon, Massachusetts, to which 250 students rallied. One of the student speakers was Robert Wilder, son of a pioneer who went to India from the Haystack prayer meeting in 1806, who spoke so strongly on the missionary need of the world that a hundred students volunteered for service.

1887-88 In this academic year there were about three thousand volunteers for missions, and the enlistment multiplied each year.

1886 The Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions was formed, with John R. Mott the chairman. Rapidly, the work was extended in Great Britain, and then around the world. The wider fellowship of Christian Associations and Unions formed the World’ Student Christian Federation. It is Latourette’ opinion that “a large proportion of the outstanding leaders in the world-wide spread of Protestant Christianity in the twentieth century were recruited.” The slogan of the Student Volunteers was ‘‘the evangelization of the world in this generation.” In half a century, more than twenty thousand students reached the foreign mission fields and served as evangelists, educators, doctors, agricultural specialists and the like, an astounding work, with social action significant but subordinated to evangelism.

1886 Another missionary thrust began, when a convert of the 1858 Revival, A. B, Simpson of Ontario, organized a summer convention at Old Orchard, Maine, out of which arose the Christian and Missionary Alliance, at first an interdenominational alliance but finally a denomination with an extraordinary missionary burden.

1883 D. L. Moody founded Moody Bible Institute chiefly for the preparation of workers for worldwide missionary service, Reuben Torrey being its first superintendent.

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